How are the energy yield and installed capacity of modules calculated?

The energy yield of module depends on three factors: solar radiation (H–peak hours), module nameplate power rating (watts) and system efficiency of system (Pr) (generally taken at about 80%), where the overall energy yield is the product of these three factors; energy yield = H x W x Pr. The installed capacity is caculated by multiplying the nameplate power rating of a single module by the total number of modules in the system. For example, for 10 285 W modules installed, the installed capacity is 285 x 10 = 2,850 W.

How much energy yield improvement can be achieved by bifacial PV modules?

Energy yield improvement achieved by bifacial PV modules compared to conventional modules depends on ground reflectance, or albedo; the height and azimuth of the tracker or other racking installed; and the ratio of direct light to scattered light in the region (blue or gray days). Given these factors, the amount of improvement should be assessed based on the actual conditions of the PV power plant. Bifacial energy yield improvements range from 5–20%.

What documents should be provided to customers on procurement of modules?

Any distributed modules marketed by us will be accompanied by certificates of conformity, inspection reports and shipping marks. Please ask truck drivers to provide certificates of conformity if no such certificates are found in the packing case. The downstream customers, who have not been provided with such documents, should contact their distribution partners.

How do you check the date of manufacture of the module?

Scan the barcode on the module to check the date of manufacture of the module (MM/DD beginning from the 10th digit).

Can the quality of modules be guaranteed under extreme weather conditions?

Apex modules have been rigorously tested and are able to withstand typhoon wind speeds up to Grade 12. The modules also have a waterproof grade of IP68, and can effectively withstand hail of at least 25 mm in size.

How long is the warranty period of APEX modules? How many years can efficient power generation be guaranteed?

APEX modules have a general warranty of 12 years. Monofacial modules have a 25-year warranty for efficient power generation, while bifacial module performance is guaranteed for 30 years.

What is the difference between APEX and other module suppliers in residential projects?

APEX, as the world’s leading solar module technology company, has been deeply involved in the residential market for many years and has a strong solutions team. APEX can provide customers with professional project survey, system design, financial advice, power plant construction and acceptance standards, and power plant monitoring operation and maintenance services for the entire life cycle of the project.

What are the advantages of APEX bifacial modules?

APEX took the lead in working with domestic and foreign institutions and customers to carry out empirical testing of bifacial modules for PV power plants, systematically studying the power generation mechanisms of bifacial modules. APEX also leads the industry in bifacial module shipments, surpassing 20 GW+, while providing customers with reference data and technical support.

How does APEX ensure module product quality?

APEX’s intelligent production network can guarantee the traceability of each module, and our highly automated production lines feature end-to-end inspection and analysis processes to ensure that each module meets the highest quality standards. We select module materials according to the highest standards, with the requirement that all new materials be subject to extended qualification and reliability tests before being incorporated into our products. Third-party labs like RETC and PVEL have ranked our modules among the highest quality products on the market.

How does APEX guarantee module supply?

APEX has the largest module production capacity in the industry, with more than 50 GW in its integrated capacity network, fully guaranteeing the supply of modules. In addition, the production network facilitates the global distribution of modules with the help of land transportation, railway transportation and sea transportation.

What type of module is better for my application, monofacial or bifacial?

Bifacial modules are slightly more expensive than monofacial modules, but can generate more power under the right conditions. When the rear side of the module is not blocked, the light received by the rear side of the bifacial module can significantly improve energy yield. In addition, the glass-glass encapsulation structure of the bifacial module has better resistance to environmental erosion by water vapor, salt-air fog, etc. Monofacial modules are more suitable for installations in mountainous regions and distributed generation rooftop applications.

What are the reasons why fluctuation occurs in current and voltage of PV power plants? Will this kind of fluctuation affect the energy yield of the plant?

The current and voltage of PV power plants are affected by temperature, light and other conditions. There are always fluctuations in voltage and current since variations in temperature and light are constant: the higher the temperature is, the lower the voltage is and the higher the current is, and the higher the intensity of light is, the higher the voltage and current are. The modules can operate across a temperature range of -40°C–85°C so the energy yield of the PV power plant will note be affected.

Will the efficiency of PV power generation be influenced by differences in color?

Modules appear blue on the whole because of an anti-reflective film coating on the surfaces of the cells. However, there are certain differences in the color of the modules due to a certain difference in thickness of such films. We have a set of different standard colors, including shallow blue, light blue, medium blue, dark blue and deep blue for modules. Furthermore, the efficiency of PV power generation is associated with the power of modules, and is not influenced by any differences in color.

How can energy yield be increased while keeping the PV power plant clean?

To keep the plant energy yield optimized, check the cleanliness of the module surfaces monthly and regularly wash them with clean water. Attention should be paid to fully cleaning the surfaces of modules to prevent formation of hotspots on modules caused by residual dirt and soiling, and the cleaning work should be carried out in the morning or at night. Also, don’t allow any vegetation, trees and structures that are taller than the modules on the eastern, southeastern, southern, southwestern and western sides of the array. Timely pruning of any trees and vegetation taller than the modules is recommended to prevent shading and possible impact on the energy yield of the modules (for details, refer to cleaning manual).

What are some of the reasons why energy yield can be much lower on some systems than others?

The energy yield of a PV power plant depends on many things, including the site weather conditions and all the various components in the system. Under normal service conditions, the energy yield depends mainly on the solar radiation and conditions of installation, which are subject to a greater difference between regions and seasons. In addition, we recommend paying more attention to calculating the annual energy yield of the system rather than focusing on daily yield data.

Mountain = Hillside? Big slope = Complicated?

The so-called complex mountain site features staggered gullies, multiple transitions toward slopes, and complex geological and hydrological conditions. At the beginning of design, the design team must fully consider any possible changes in topography. If not, modules could be obscured from direct sunlight, leading to possible issues during layout and construction.

How does one plan for general mountainous terrain?

Mountain PV power generation has certain requirements for terrain and orientation. Generally speaking, it is best to select a flat plot with a south slope (when the slope is less than 35 degrees). If the land has a slope greater than 35 degrees in the south, entailing difficult construction but high energy yield and small array spacing and land area, it may good to reconsider the site selection . The second examples are those sites with southeast slope, southwest slope, east slope, and west slope (where the slope is less than 20 degrees). This orientation has slightly large array spacing and large land area, and it can be considered as long as the slope is not too steep. The last examples are the sites with a shady north slope. This orientation receives limited insolation, small energy yield and large array spacing. Such plots should be used as little as possible. If such plots must be used, it is best to choose sites with a slope of less than 10 degrees.

How does one select the racking structure for a mountain PV power plant?

Mountainous terrain features slopes with different orientations and significant slope variations, and even deep gullies or hills in some areas. Therefore, the support system should be designed as flexibly as possible to improve the adaptability to complex terrain: o Change tall racking to shorter racking. o Use a racking structure which is more adaptable to terrain: single-row pile support with an adjustable column height difference, single-pile fixed support, or tracking support with adjustable elevation angle. o Use long-span pre-stressed cable support, which can help overcome the unevenness between columns.

How can an eco-friendly PV power plant be environmentally friendly?

We offer detailed design and site surveys in the early development stages to reduce the amount of land used.

What is the difference between eco-friendly PV power plants and conventional power plants?

Eco-friendly PV power plants are environmentally-friendly, grid-friendly and customer-friendly. Compared with conventional power plants, they are superior in economics, performance, technology and emissions.

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